What is the Difference Between T Test and P Value?

In the world of statistics, calculations, assumptions, and conclusions prevail. The t-tests and p-value are the two most confusing guess techniques among all the tests and results.

While the two are in the same subset of statistics and provide an additional measure of guesswork and being interrelated. The two tests are not the same!

The Difference Between T test and P Value is:

  • A t-test is used to analyze the rate of difference between the sample means, while the p-value is performed to obtain a test that can be used to negate indifference between the two-sample means.
  • The t-test provides the difference between two measurements within a normal range, while the p-value focuses on the extreme side of the sample and thus provides an extreme result.

Despite being interrelated, the two show different aspects of a sample and determine different population parameters from which the samples are derived.

Comparison Table Between T Test and P Value


T Test

P Value

Full Form

Test Statistics

probability value

Statistics Branch

inferential statistics

inferential statistics

Hypothesis Testing



Sample Averages




mean difference

Negate null assumptions

What is the T Test?

A t-test is a statistical test that determines the rate difference between the averages of two related sets. It falls under the category of statistics related to the predictions of a population sample.

The t-test can be performed on a set of related data; the common characteristic may be age, area, provision of services, or any similar factor. Two different assumptions cannot be used for the T analysis.

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The samples must be randomly assigned to derive the result of the t-test. Although the sample size must be such that it appears to be a standard spread, both sets must have values ​​distributed about the mean value in the same proportion.

The three famous types of t-tests are; the paired-sample model, one-sample, and two-sample independent tests.

Paired sample testing is when the test is performed on the same sample at different times. The aim is to deduce the impact of the various external factors on the sample. The productivity of workers during the day can be compared with that during the night using a one-sample t-test.

Single sampling is when a factor of a certain thing is compared to the supplied standard. Using this measure, you can compare the average life of the bulb and its comparison with a sample of bulbs to deduce the average competition.

A self-contained sample test is a given name; when a certain factor is taken from the samples; Two different data sets are drawn from two different samples. IQ levels between male and female students can be inferred using this method.

This comparison helps the user decipher the relationship between two data sets or understand the truth behind established standards.

What is the P Value? 

The p-value is the assumption test used to negate the fact that the means of the two samples have no difference.

Alpha is the term used to describe a predetermined probability. At the same time, the p-value is the term used for the probability calculated after an extensive analysis of the population and sample.

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Opposed to a null or no difference hypothesis is the alternative or moving means, in which case, if the resulting p-value is less than the leading figure, then the static hypothesis is rejected.

In certain cases, the same hypothesis is erroneously rejected; it is done in cases where the null assumption is true, but it is rejected because the substantial number is greater than the p-value.

In the other case, the hypothesis is wrongly accepted. Although a difference is easily shown, this is believed to be due to external issues and not any measurement or indicator.

A smaller p-value means that its impact on the entire sample is of greater magnitude and importance.

If the p-value is of such a trivial nature that the means must eventually be declared to have no difference; in such a case, the tests and the results of the entire test are considered inconsequential.

Main Difference Between T test and P Value

A burning glance shows the main differences between the T-test and the P-value:

  • While the t-test determines the difference between the averages of two sets of values. While the p-value shows the probability between the difference of means between two particular sets.
  • The p-value calculates the probability of samples whose means are equal, while the t-test is performed on samples with different means.
  • The p-value looks at the smallest difference between the averages, which looks the same; while the t-test is done on a small sample, the averages should have a noticeable difference.
  • The sample size affects the P-value; the larger the sample, the smaller the value. Although the t-value inferred from the t-test is directly proportional to the sample size, the larger the sample, the larger the value.
  • The result of the t-test is said to be directly relevant to the entire population, whereas, in the case of the p-value, this statement is not true.
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Assumptions about a population and its limitations are vital in the analytical branch of statistics, while sampling and assumptions are made at the initial stage.

The t-test and p-value calculation form the vital stage after which further calculations and conclusions are built.

The first two tests give a clear idea regarding the sample selected and the eventual population on which an assumption for the test is developed.

The results of both tests form an integrated part of the statistics, and therefore it is very important to understand the significant difference between the two.

Courtesy: Queens College of Vocational Education, Melbourne

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