General Introduction to Cashew Farming
Cashew is a major horticultural crop grown extensively in Kerala, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa. Cashew Cultivation is being done. It is found to a lesser extent in West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, and North-Eastern states. Cashew grown goes to Along with being used as a popular snack, cashew nuts are included in ice cream, pastries, and desserts, gaining more prominence as an ingredient in healthy foods due to their high protein and low sugar content.
Currently, 6.13 lakh tons of cashew nuts are being produced in India in about 9.23 hectares, compared to last year, 6.95 lakh tons of cashew nuts were made in 8.93 lakh hectares. Corn production is low.
India can produce 1.2 million tonnes of cashews; the existing plantations have been grown more extensively from seeds, which show victory in flowering, fruiting, and other properties due to the process of persuasion. To overcome this problem, presently found by vegetative propagation. Hua cuttings are recommended for planting.
Wild plants and weeds should be removed in the selected site for the cultivation of cashew, the roots of plants and weeds should be removed in a radius of 2 meters from the place of grafting. With this, the newly planted pen can be fixed without competition.
Dig a hole
A 1x1x1m pit should be dug across the slope at a distance of 7.5×7.5 meters or 8.0×8.0 meters. In the “Hedge-row” planting method, spacing of 1×5 m is facilitated for inter-cropping in the initial years of cultivation. The pit should be dug 15-20 days before planting and kept open in the sunlight so that the root-like termite Can destroy harmful insects. The pit should be filled up to three-fourth with a mixture of topsoil, 5 kg of compost, 2 kg of compost, and 200 grams of rock phosphate; a drain should be constructed for good water drainage.
Planting Pen for Cashew Cultivation
Generally, more than five months of age
are found in nurseries, healthy buds should be carefully removed from the polythene bag and planted along with the soil. For planting the cutting, a little dirt should be removed from the center of the pit; after planting the cutting in the pit, gently press the surrounding soil, the joint of the pen should be 5 cm from the soil. Should be placed above; this will facilitate the removal of shoots coming out of the rhizome. The pit should be filled slowly within two years.
Peg and Rake
After planting the cutting, a peg should be tied to the pen so that if the wind is strong, it is not harmed; for moisture conservation, the plants should be dried from the surroundings, and every leaf should be destroyed.
Plant Care, Rearing, and Pruning
From time to time, the shoots coming from the bottom of the cutting joint should be removed, 75-100 cm of the main stem. The lower branches should be cut with a scissor so that after four to five years of planting, the main trunk remains straight up to the height. It should be done every year gradually; this will facilitate agricultural work, collection of bunches, and detection of cashew nuts and root borer loss symptoms.
The flowers should be removed for two years after planting; the first crop should be taken in the third year. The straight growing main trunk after 4-5 years should be cut at the height of 3.5 m to 4.0 m.
Many advanced varieties of cashew have been developed by the National Cashew Research Center (Puttur); in terms of improved varieties, about 10-15 advanced types of cashew are being produced in India, some of them are given below –
Improved variety of cashew
Quantification of Fertilizer Application in Cashew Cultivation
|after planting (in years)||urea (gram/plant)||rock phosphate (gram/plant)||muriate of potash (gram/plant)|
Fertilizing Cashew Field
In loamy soils and low rainfall areas (East Coast and Interior)
fertilizers should be applied in circular strips of 50 cm width 0.5 m, 0.7 m, and 1.0 m from the main trunk in the first, second, third, and fourth year.
In areas with high rainfall, 25 cm in width and 1.5 cm in loamy and sloping soils. Fertilizer should be applied in the circular trench of depth 0.5 m, 07 m, 1.0 m, and 1.5 m in the first, second, third, and fourth-year respectively. Fertilizer should be mixed in the soil.
To increase the utilization efficiency of fertilizers, green leaves should be mulched by laying them in excess rain. In case of lack of moisture in the soil, fertilizers should not be applied in the second week of August; fertilizers can be given when the rains are less.
Soil and Water Conservation Methods
Before the third year, a water harvesting ditch should be made around each plant in the Dhaluvo regions. And should be 0.45 deep. By laying the organic matter on the soil around the plant and mulching, the soil moisture can be saved from erosion and sunlight during the rainy season.
Intensive Planting Method for Cashew Cultivation
In the initial phase of cashew plantations through intensive planting method, the vacant land will be used profitably by increasing the number of seedlings. The high-density planting method is dehydrated in low-fertility regions because the propagation of plants is very slow in such places. Most of the land remains open in the initial years. In such places, if 8×8 meter spacing (156 trees/ha) is kept in the simple density planting method, the yield in the initial stages is significantly less.
625 trees/ha (intensive planting of 4×4 m can increase the yield of cashew in low fertility soil up to the sixth year by 4 times and for 12 years by 2.5 times, 5×5 m for intensive planting) (400 trees/ha) and other spacing of 6×4 m (415 trees/ha) is also recommended.
TEA MOSQUITO TEA MOSQUITO BUG [TMB] management of-
The soft shoots, flower clusters, ripe clumps, and fruits are sucked by the infant and adult kitto, resulting in black streaks. These stripes on shoots and inflorescences together produce shoot blight or panicle blight.If the loss of this kit is severe, it is necessary to take spray to protect the unaffected trees; the little gardens less than five years of age, which are continuously culled, are sprayed with insecticide. should be covered After that, spraying should be done in the gardens as needed
- The recommended insecticides for spray are as follows
- in germination stage
- Monocrotophanes (0.05%/i.e. in 1.5 ml/litre of water)
- At flowering/fruiting stage: Carbaryl (0.1% i.e. 2g/Litre of water)
- Or L-Sahalothrin (0.003 i.e. in 6ml/10 liters of water)
The pesticide should be mixed thoroughly before filling the sprayer. Spray should be given during the day till 10:00 and only after 4:00 pm. Do not spray against the wind. Empty cans of insecticide should be destroyed and buried deep in the soil. Care should be taken when spraying cashew trees around the roots of drinking water. The person pouring should cover their mouth and nose with a mask. Spraying should be done only after weeding in the plots.
Cashew Stem and Root Borer [CSRB]) management of –
Older cashew trees located in or near neglected cashew orchards are more vulnerable to CSRB damage. Adult female beetles keep their eggs in the slits (closer to the soil level) or open-air roots. The caterpillars immediately make tunnels in the bark and bark of the sources. After completing extensive tunnels in the bark, the flow of nutrients is obstructed, due to which the leaves and twigs dry up.
Gum and France seep from the tree in the obstructed area, which is the initial symptom for therapy; the main trunk or the obstructed bark of the root under which the “France” should be removed carefully without causing much damage to the bark. Like the fresh “France” in the tunnels, the bark must be detected and destroyed by CSRB caterpillars.
Falling “France” near the tree is a sign of building the corpuscles in the larva. At this stage, a twisting wire of the cell should be inserted into the tunnel and repeatedly pressed until a slurred sound is heard. A white fluid will come out, which is a sign of loss of the inner ear sac. After that, the chipped part should be smeared with chlorpyrifos (0.2%) (in 10 ml insecticide/liter of water) solution.
Trees that have more than 50% loss in the circumference of the bark or whose entire leaves are yellow, that tree will not survive, but the insect stages living in them can be the root of pest attack in the future.
Therefore, such trees that will not survive should be uprooted under plant hygiene, removing the remaining insects in them, destroying them, and removing them immediately so that the root cause of pest attack for the next year is not created. At the time of gutli collection (February to May), the pest emergency begins; At the same time, pest-infested trees can be targeted subtly. Subsequently, targeted trees should be subjected to “curative action” within 25 to 30 days so that the slugs do not cause further damage.
Only the fallen cashew nuts should be collected from under the tree. Fruits should never be plucked from trees. Gutlis should be separated from the fruit/apple and stored in sacks 4-6 inches above the ground after drying in the sun for 2-3 days.
8 kg of all hibernated varieties. / tree or has a potential yield of 1.0 to 1.5 t/ha. Cashew gives yield from the third year, yet the total possible yield is about 8 kg, depending on the management level. It takes 8 to 10 years to get a tree.